How a sewing machine works


We all know what a sewing machine is – a device for sewing. The first sewing machines were made a long time ago. They weren’t like the ones we use today. The old sewing machines were less simple and worked manually. Today the best sewing machines come in all types, sizes and designs. There is a wide variety on the market, from large sewing machines used in factories to smaller ones used by individuals.

How it works?

If you’ve even observed a sewing machine, you may have noticed the small needle moving up and down as the fabric is pushed forward. This is how sewing is done. But there is certainly more to it. Most sewing machines are powered by electricity and have motors. However, there are some that are hand fed. You have to operate these machines manually. But let’s focus on the electrics.

Arrangement of pulleys

A sewing machine has the needle arrangement on one end, and the motor is attached to the other. Just by seeing the device, you can see the arrangement of the pulleys. The machine has a flywheel which is driven by the pulley arrangement. If you want to sew slowly, you can also move the steering wheel yourself.

The flywheel and the needle

The handwheel is connected to the needle via an axis. As the handwheel moves forward, the needle moves up and down and creates a stitch. The movement of the motor is transformed into an up and down movement of the needle.

Role of the coil

Under the needle and down there is a hook that turns. As he moves, he catches the thread in the needle and winds it in another thread. Where does this other thread come from? There is a bobbin on the bottom side which has another spool of thread. The sewing machine locks the two threads and a stitch is made.

Feeding dog mechanism

Using the feed dog mechanism, the machine sews similar stitches on the fabric. The feed dogs are called tooth-shaped ridges present on the underside of the machine. They emerge as you sew. They help grip the tissue. One mechanism allows the feed dogs to move up and down, and the other slides forwards and backwards. Simultaneously, the motor driven shaft moves the needle up and down.

How the machine sews

The needle has the thread, and it travels through the fabric, creates a loop, and then goes up. The hook of the shuttle catches the loop and locks it with the bobbin thread. It happens under the fabric, so you can’t see it. When the needle goes up, it tightens the stitch so that the upper and lower threads are firmly locked. The process continues for all points.


Sewing machines have been around the world since ancient times. They may seem simple, but how they work can be difficult to understand. Like all other machines, sewing machines have also evolved. They may not all work the same, but the fundamental mechanism remains the same.


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